All Qingres journals will follow the COPE guidelines outlining how to deal with cases of suspected misconduct. In cases of suspected research or publication misconduct, it may be necessary for the Editor to contact and share manuscripts with third parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and ethics committee(s). Qingres may also seek advice from COPE and discuss anonymized cases in the COPE Forum. All research involving humans (including human data and human material) and animals must have been carried out within an appropriate ethical framework. If there is suspicion that research has not taken place within an appropriate ethical framework, the Editor may reject a manuscript and may inform third parties, for example, author(s)’ institution(s) and ethics committee(s). In cases of proven research misconduct involving published articles, or where the scientific integrity of the article is significantly undermined, articles may be retracted.
Ethical standards for publication exist to ensure high-quality scientific publications, public trust in scientific findings, and that people receive credit for their ideas. Qingres will follow Best Practice Guidelines recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). Authors, editors, and reviewers are expected to be aware of, and comply with, best practice in publication ethics.
All journals published by Qingres are committed to publishing only original material, i.e., material that has neither been published elsewhere, nor is under review elsewhere. Qingres as a participant of CrossCheck uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. Manuscripts that are found to have plagiarized from a manuscript by other authors, whether published or unpublished, will incur plagiarism sanctions.
Manuscripts found to have been previously published or to be under review elsewhere when submitted to JPBS, will be immediately returned to the authors. If authors have used text or data from their own previously published work, for example in a review article, this must be clearly indicated in the manuscript and written permissions obtained from the copyright owners.
All persons who made significant contributions to the content or preparation of the manuscript, including students and laboratory technicians, should be accepted as co-authors or listed in the Acknowledgement section. All listed authors must have made significant scientific contributions to the research in the manuscript and have read and approved the manuscript prior to submission.
Data fabrication and falsification, including manipulation of images, are serious violations of scientific ethics. Manuscript suspected of containing fraudulent results will be immediately returned to the authors, with a description of the suspected fabrications. In the cases where extensive or systematic fabrication of data is suspected additional actions may be taken according to the guidelines of COPE.
Manuscript should include only citations necessary to document their research and not include gratuitous citations aimed primarily at increasing the number of citations or their previously published papers or papers published in a specific journal.
All experiments involving human subjects, including the harvesting of tissues, use of medical records and/or genetic data, must comply with the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) and regulations established by the author’s government and research institution. Papers describing experimental work that carries a risk of harm to human subjects must include a statement that the experiment was conducted with the understanding and consent of human subjects, and a written statement from their institution's Internal Review Board or Ethics Committee certifying approval for the project must be made available upon request. In the case of any animal experiments, the authors must provide a full description of any anesthetic or surgical procedure used, as well as evidence that all possible steps were taken to avoid animal suffering at each stage of the experiment. Written approval from the Institution’s Internal Review Board must also be obtained and copies made available upon request.
A notice of correction will be issued to document and correct substantial errors that appear in online articles when these errors significantly affect the content or understanding of the work reported (e.g., error in data presentation or analysis) or when the error affects the publication's metadata (e.g., misspelling of an author's name). In these cases, Qingres will publish a correction that will be linked to the original article.
In very rare cases, we may choose to correct the article itself and re-post it online. If that course is taken, a correction notice will also be created to document the changes to the original article.
Authors who wish to alert Qingres to a situation where a correction may be warranted are requested to contact us with the relevant details (journal, full citation of the article, and description of the error) at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Errors serious enough to invalidate a paper’s results and conclusions may require retraction. However, retraction with republication (also referred to as “replacement”) can be considered in cases where honest error (e.g., a misclassification or miscalculation) leads to a major change in the direction or significance of the results, interpretations, and conclusions. If the error is judged to be unintentional, the underlying science appears valid, and the changed version of the paper survives further review and editorial scrutiny, then retraction with republication of the changed paper, with an explanation, allows full correction of the scientific literature. In such cases, the extent of the changes will attached in the supplementary materials.
All submissions will be initially assessed for compatibility with the scope and goals of JPBS. All published articles are expected to meet high academic standards. Manuscripts judged to be suitable will be sent to at least two independent expert reviewers to assess scientific quality. The identities of the reviewers will remain anonymous to the authors.
Qingres will deposit the articles that it publishes in Portico to guarantee long-term digital preservation.